- (1444-1514)Donato Bramante is considered the first High Renaissance architect in Rome because his classical style shifted from the more general use of classical references characteristic of the Early Renaissance to a more specific and sustained use of classical vocabulary. Originally trained as a painter in the court of Urbino, in central Italy, Bramante first worked for the Sforza family of Milan, where he probably met Leonardo da Vinci and became interested in architecture.In 1502, Bramante settled in Rome and received a commission from King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain to complete a small shrine located on the supposed site of Saint Peter's crucifixion. This small round church came to be called "The Tempietto," or "Little Temple," in recognition of the fact that it most closely recalls buildings from classical antiquity that followed the principles of architecture first defined in Ancient Rome by Vitruvius. Given that this small church is a memorial to Saint Peter, it therefore does not have a large congregational space but instead is meant to be a martyrium, that is, a building that demarcates the site of the martyrdom or burial of a person. This centrally planned church features a base that leads up to the colonnaded portico via three steps. Although most churches in the Renaissance and subsequent Baroque eras were longitudinal in plan, this circular plan was considered the more perfect shape for a church. A circle is completely symmetrical, with no beginning and no end, and in the Renaissance it came to symbolize infinity, and therefore, God himself. It follows that the round Tempietto is therefore the most nearly perfect, or ideal, ground plan. Its portico is supported with Doric columns, the simplest capital design, favored by Vitruvius for the commemoration of male gods and consequently also used in the Renaissance to commemorate male saints. Above the columns of the Tempietto, triglyphs separate the square metopes, which are carved with symbols of Saint Peter, including his keys and papal tiara. A balustrade, or porch balcony, caps the portico, while a graceful drum behind the balustrade supports a dome capped by a lantern with a cross on top.After the election of Julius II to the papacy in 1503, Bramante was given the most prestigious commission in all of Rome, that of rebuilding the ancient church of Saint Peter. The original church was over one thousand years old but it had been reinforced over the centuries so that it still functioned as the main church of Roman Catholicism, built over the site where Saint Peter was buried. Given the historical importance of this building, earlier popes had hesitated to tear it down, but Julius II considered the rebuilding of the church an important step in revitalizing the city of Rome. Bramante devised a Greek-cross-plan church with a massive dome that would rise over the Roman skyline. Pope Julius II and Bramante both died before the work was completed, but subsequent popes continued the massive project into the next century and achieved Pope Julius's dream of building the largest church in the entire Christian world. With these buildings epitomizing the High Renaissance architectural style, Bramante's short-lived architectural career received lasting recognition.
Historical Dictionaries of Literature and the Arts. Allison Lee Palmer. 2008.
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Bramante, Donato — • Italian architect and painter, b. about 1444 at Monte Asdrualdo; d. in Rome, 11 March, 1514 Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006 … Catholic encyclopedia
Bramante, Donato — (Donato di Pascuccio; 1444 1514). The leading architect of the High Renaissance. Bramante trained as a painter, probably with Piero della Francesca or Andrea Mantegna. His career as architect began in Milan where, alongside Leonardo da Vinci,… … Dictionary of Renaissance art
Bramante, Donato — born 1444, probably at Monte Asdruvaldo, Duchy of Urbino died April 11, 1514, Rome Italian architect and perspectivist painter. The son of a farmer, he was working as a painter by 1477. His early architectural works included the church of Santa… … Universalium
Bramante, Donato — (1444, probablemente en Monte Asdruvaldo, ducado de Urbino–11 abr. 1514, Roma). Arquitecto y pintor perspectivista italiano. Hijo de un granjero, en 1477 ya trabajaba como pintor. Sus primeros trabajos arquitectónicos son la iglesia de Santa… … Enciclopedia Universal
Bramante, Donato — (1443/4 1514) Italian artist, known principally as an architect. He originally worked at Urbino and Milan as a painter, but his service to the duke of Milan led to involvement in architectural work, beginning perhaps with paintings and… … Historical Dictionary of Renaissance
Bramante,Donato — Bra·man·te (brə mänʹtā, brä mänʹtĕ), Donato. 1444 1514. Italian architect who evolved the style known as High Renaissance. He provided the original central plan for the new Saint Peter s Basilica (begun in 1506). * * * … Universalium
BRAMANTE, DONATO — architect; laid the foundation of St. Peter s at Rome, which he did not live to complete (1444 1514) … The Nuttall Encyclopaedia
Bramante, Donato d´Agnolo di Pascuccio, llamado el — ► (1444 1514) Arquitecto italiano. Es la gran figura de la arquitectura del Renacimiento. Por encargo de Julio II realizó diversas obras urbanísticas, el templete de san Pedro in Montorio (1502) y, sobre todo, la nueva basílica de San Pedro del… … Enciclopedia Universal
Bramante, Donato di Pasuccio d’Antonio — (1444–1514) Italian architect and artist … Bryson’s dictionary for writers and editors
Donato d'Angelo Lazzari — Bramante in Raffaels Fresko Schule von Athen Büste des Bramante im Park der Villa Medici in Rom Bramante (Donato Brama … Deutsch Wikipedia